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Government of Ghana

Republics of Ghana:


On 1st July 1960 Ghana became a Republic:

In 1966, the Ghana Armed Forces and Police led by Lt. Col. E. K. Kotoka and Maj. A. A. Afrifa overthrew Nkrumah’s administration and the first Republican Constitution of Ghana. A National Liberation Council (NLC) took office, headed by a retired army officer, General J. A. Ankrah. Lt. General A. A. Afrifa, in 1969, succeeded General Ankrah as the Chairman of the NLC.

Second Republic:

Dr. Kofi Abrefa Busia’s Progress Party (PP) took over from the NLC by winning the 1969 elections. The Progress Party Administration with Dr. Busia as Prime Minister and former Chief Justice Edward Akuffo Addo, one of the Big Six as President, was overthrown by a military coup in 1972 led by the then Col. I. K. Acheampong.

He formed and chaired a military junta, the National Redemption Council (NRC). General I. K. Acheampong became the Head of State and Chairman of the NRC. The name NRC was later changed to the Supreme Military Council (SMC). General F.W.K. Akuffo replaced General Acheampong in a palace coup in July 1978.

Third Republic:

The SMC II was overthrown on 4th June 1979 through a mutiny by some officers and men of the Ghana Armed Forces who established an Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC) with Fit. Lt. Jerry John Rawlings as Chairman and Head of State. The AFRC was in office for only three months. On 24th September 1979, the AFRC handed over power to Dr. Hilla Limann leader of the People’s National Party (PNP) which won the 1979 elections.

The Limann administration and the Third Republican Constitution of Ghana were overthrown in yet another military coup in Ghana’s post Independence history in 1981. The coup was led by Flt. Lt. Rawlings who again became Head of State and Chairman of a Provisional National Defence Council, (PNDC) which he established. The PNDC ruled Ghana from 31st December 1981 to 7th January 1993. A combination of internal and international pressure factors led to a return to constitutional multi-party democratic rule in 1993.

In the Presidential election held on November 3rd 1992 Flt. Lt. Rawlings contested on the ticket of the National Democratic Congress (NDC) and beat eminent African historian and human rights activist Prof. Albert Adu Boahen, the flag bearer of the New Patriotic Party, into second place. In the Parliamentary elections the Progressive Alliance, made up of the National Democratic Congress, the National Convention Party and the Eagle Party won 198 seats out of the total of 200. Four other parties, the NPP, PNC, NIP and PHP boycotted the parliamentary elections on account of dissatisfaction with the electoral arrangements.

Fourth Republic:

The Fourth Republic was inaugurated on January 7th 1993 with the swearing in of H. E. Flt. Lt. Rawlings as President and his running mate, Mr. Kow Nkensen Arkaah as Vice President. On December 7th 1996, Flt. Lt. Rawlings was re-elected for a second four-year term as a President, with Prof. John Evans Atta Mills as his running mate. In the 1996 elections, President Rawlings beat Mr. J. A. Kufuor of the NPP to second place. In the Parliamentary elections, the NDC won 133 seats, the NPP 61 seats, PCP 5 seats and PNC 1 seat.

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